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Storia dei grani antichi siciliani

Storia dei grani antichi siciliani

Timilia

<< Il frumento è bellissimo. La tumenia (TUMMINIA), nome che sembra derivi da binemia o trinemia, è un dono prezioso di Cerere: è una specie di frano estivo, che m,atura in tre mesi. Lo seminano dal primo gennaio a giugno, e matura sempre entro un tempo determinato. Non ha bisogno di molta acqua, ma piuttosto di gran caldo; da principio mostra una fogliolina assai delicata, poi cresce come il frumento e infine acquista molta forza…>> (J. W. Goethe, in “Viaggio in Sicilia”).

Il grano Timilia, o grano marzuolo anticamente Tuminia Nigra, è una delle 32 cultivar di frumento duro coltivato nell’entroterra siciliano. Ha un ciclo breve con semina a marzo in collina, e anche prima nelle zone marittime; il grano era molto diffuso in Sicilia prima della seconda guerra mondiale. Veniva seminato dopo autunni piovosi, quando altri grani non potevano essere seminati; è diffuso nel bacino mediterraneo ed è molto resistente alla siccità. Le sue farine, con poca acqua, permettono la produzione di pani a pasta dura di colore scuro dotati di grande digeribilità, capaci di durare molti giorni. Dal 2010 viene usata in Sicilia, e non solo, anche per la produzione di birra artigianale.

La stazione di Granicoltura per la Sicilia nel 1930 ha selezionato due varietà di Timilia, denominate

. Timilia S.G.1 (a reste nere) Triticum durum Desf. Var. reichenbhachii Koern

. Timilia S.G.2 ( a reste bianche) Triticum durum Desf. Var. affine Koern

STORIA

Questo grano era noto già in epoca greca con il nome trimeniaios.

Già a Lentini durante la guerra del 90 anni dal 1282 al 1372 questo grano era usato ampiamente per la sua tardività nella semina, come si legge nelle cronache dell’epoca, specie durante l’assedio del 1359.

<<…”Erasi in quell’epoca e per quella guerra venne introdotta la coltivazione del grano marzuolo, che allora diceasi Diminia perché, venendo in maturità in minor tempo degli altri frumenti, credevano gli agricoltori di correre meno pericolo. Pure ciò nulla giovò a’ Lentinesi nell’aprile del 1359”…>> (Niccolò Palmeri, Carlo Somma; Palermo, 1883- Opere edite et inedite- Pagina 802, Stabilimento Tipografico P.Pensante)

Questo grano era anche diffuso in Portogallo, Nord Africa, Francia, ed in particolare Siviglia, in Spagna. Hugo Werner, nel 1885, riporta le varie denominazioni del Triticum tumonia o Timilia con cui veniva indicata: Tremesino in Spagna, Blè Trimenia, Trèmois, o Trimenia de Sicile in Francia, Dreimonatweizen (grano dei tre mesi) in Germania. La Trimenia barbu de Sicile è conosciuto come uno dei grani più adatti a climi caldi e secchi. Molto nota e usata durante il Seicento, la varietà, insieme ad altre tipiche della Sicilia, fu intensamente studiata durante il periodo fascista dalla Stazione sperimentale di granicoltura di Caltagirone.

La farina

La farina integra (anche poco burattata) contiene molti oligo-elementi del germe di grano e della crusca; presenta un alto valore proteico e un basso indice di glutine. La farina, dal particolare e unico colore grigiastro, è molto indicata per la panificazione da sola o anche in aggiunta con altre semole siciliane. Per non perdere le sue qualità organolettiche va utilizzata in tempi relativamente brevi (circa 4 mesi).

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